One of the great under-researched subjects in kirkyard studies is Scotland’s heritage of Claymore Stones.
Thus far we have discovered eleven Claymore Stones at Kirkmichael. Almost all of them have been re-used since their first placement, some of them several times over. Most of them carry a date, ranging from 1600 to 1630. A twelfth, dated 1605, lies in our complementary kirkyard at Cullicudden.
My theory is that post-Reformation, when the ornate crosses and symbols of Scotland’s Roman Catholic memorial past had become anathema, and before the late 1600s when the Protestant symbols of mortality became common in the Highlands, the only symbol families felt comfortable with was the Claymore. At a time when even the Cross was considered taboo, the Claymore was considered a respectable symbol. That its shape evoked the Cross was perhaps more than just coincidence.
Our understanding of Claymore stones has developed as we have found more. It would appear (based on admittedly very limited evidence) that the longer Claymore symbols are on the older stones; the further into the 1600s the more other ornamentation appears and the Claymore shrinks in length accordingly. A few more stones and a few more dates would assist in testing this theory!
The great length of the hilt on the Claymore was to allow both hands to hold the sword at the same time. The weight and length of the Claymore required a double-handed grip, especially when the fearsome weapon was being swung around one’s head, scything down any opponent who came within its deadly orbit. The image below is from Wikipedia and is of a replica of a Scottish claymore. This replica is a “Chieftain Limited Edition Medieval Scottish War Sword”, sold by Albion Europe. The sword measures: Total length: 118 cm (46.46 in); Blade length: 92 cm (36.02 in); Weight: 1.8 kg (3.968 lbs); Grip length: 18.3 cm (7.205 in). Note the inclined quillons and pierced quatrefoil terminals which are represented on some of the carvings at Kirkmichael.
Claymore replica; source Wikipedia, Creative Commons Licence
The Claymore Stones in Kirkmichael are variable in design as will be seen from the following images.
This slab had a very public exposure. Each year for the Highland Archaeology Festival we invite visitors to attend while we uncover a previously unrecorded slab. We always do a little keyhole investigation first, to ensure there is something there, but we are as much in the dark as our guests as to what we will find.
On 5th October 2019 everybody was delighted to experience a rarity being uncovered. I think everybody sensed our own excitement as the slab was revealed.
Our visitors were delighted as the new Claymore Stone emerged; photo by Andrew Dowsett
I elegantly illustrate the length of the new Claymore; photo by Andrew Dowsett
It took some time to extricate the date as the top was more badly eroded than the remainder. We thought we had a date from a session late at night with extreme oblique photography and a 100 Watt lamp (nicknamed the Kirkmichael Lampie). However, subsequent photogrammetric images indicated in fact the correct date is 1601. It was less ornate than some of the slabs, and instead of the usual clockwise inscription around the perimeter, it bore a simplistic and apparently incomplete dedication at the top:
Kirkmichael outlined by lamplight during an evening session with this stone; photo by Andrew Dowsett
The date 1601 appears on the Keren stone thanks to the photogrammetry of Andy Hickie
The Claymore runs most of the length of the slab which is 1.88 m long, 0.68 m wide at the top, 0.53 m wide at the base, and 0.16 m deep at a point midway across top. The inscription startled us, as the surname of the family was one we had never seen in the Resolis records:
1601 FOR THOMAS / KEREN IN BRAY / LANGAL & DON / ALD KEREN IN TA / ENENICH / I•K
image by raking light at night on left: Andrew Dowsett; photogrammetric image on right: Andy Hickie
I have no Resolis records of the family of Keren, but I note from the Cromarty church registers, which commence in the mid 1600s, that there were families named Keren and Keran in Udale, Peddieston and elsewhere in the parish at that time. Resolis church records do not exist for this period, but it would be safe to assume that with several Keren families in Cromarty, there would also be several in Kirkmichael.
The marriage of Thomas Keran and Janet Tailour in Cromarty in 1680
Tenenich (and variant spellings) lay between Kirkmichael and Udale, a bit to the west of modern day Jemimaville (red spot on the map from approximately this period by Gordon). There was once a market here. Braelangwell is in blue, Kirkmichael in pink.
Gordon map of Kirkmichael in the 1600s
Having uncovered the “Keren” Claymore stone for the first Saturday open day of the Highland Archaeology Festival on 5 October 2019, we anticipated that the slab we uncovered the following weekend, on 12 October 2019, would be a more typical slab from the 1700s. We knew it was there from some “keyhole investigation” in advance but more than that was just guesswork. And so it appeared on first uncovering, a rather challenging exercise in itself as it lies very deep, partly under the main path to the south of the nave and partly under the corner of the Peter Mackenzie headstone. One set of initials near top:
W McK / I F / 1782
Set of initials below W McK:
W V / E MK or E MR [ligature M and leg of next letter]
Set of initials in middle, but first letter of each lost by a hole in the stone:
… K / … C / 1731
About two thirds of the way down:
I MK [ligature M and R] / HC
Given its proximity to the Peter Mackenzie headstone and related tablestone, it is possible this is a memorial commemorating earlier members of this Mackenzie family, but of course it might be a different family of, for instance, Mackeddie. More research on the family is required.
Excitement as another Claymore emerges; photo by Andrew Dowsett
From left, the Keren Claymore stone still exposed, path, the new Claymore stone, behind it the Peter Mackenzie headstone, and next, the related Maceknzie tablestone; photo by Jim Mackay
And then Davine suggested there was part of a sword visible. She took some chaffing for wishful thinking following our discovery of the previous week, but sure enough when the stone was washed and cleaned up another Claymore stone was revealed! This Claymore stone runs most of the length of the stone, the left quillon lost in the same hole as the sets of initials. The quillon unusually is straight out, although the terminal dips a little. We subjected the stone to night-time oblique photography, and Andy Hickie kindly carried out a photogrammetric exercise. It was a challenge due to the depth of the stone, the proximity of a headstone and having to excavate under the path, but the results show the Claymore to be very worn but distinct enough!
The Claymore can be seen when viewed at an angle; photo by Jim Mackay
But is clearly seen in this photogrammetric image by Andy Hickie
The pommel of the hilt of the sword extends above the 7, although overwritten in places; photo by Jim Mackay
This slab appeared when the shallow trench for the new path was being excavated in 2017. It was an exciting moment for volunteers and supervising archaeologists.
photo: Andrew Dowsett
The arms or quillons of the Claymore are represented with quatrefoil terminations, and although the stone has spalled on the left arm, the overall sword looks terrific.
The date is set out on the top line. The inscription then runs clockwise from top right around the slab. I suspect the final line was inserted somewhat later by his indignant wife!
19 APRILIS 1600 / JHONE HOSOK IN KIRKMICHAEL HES PREPAR/ID THIS SEPULTURE FOR HIMSELF & HIS POSTERITIE / AND MARION PATIRSON HIS SPOUS / WH
photo: Andrew Dowsett
Note that John Hossack in Kirkmichael hadn’t actually died at this time – he had obviously had a millennial urge to prepare a special tomb (the meaning of “sepulture” in this context) for his family. The final great “WH” placed across the hilt of the Claymore I would take to be either John Hossack honouring his father or one of John’s posterity recording his own initials on this fabulous stone.
This is the faintest of our Claymore Stones. This slab should take a prize for the number of re-uses it has survived.
The more recent inscriptions are:
DH / 1777 / MM
IH IB / 1806
This slab is from a line of Holm stones, so we can assume these are Holm inscriptions. Below these modern carvings are an earlier pair of defaced initials and overwritten earlier date: DA, perhaps, and 1723 or 1725.
photogrammetric images by Andy Hickie
I noted that the top right corner of the perimeter inscription was temptingly close to readability and so I asked Friend of Kirkmichael and photogrammetry enthusiast Andy Hickie if he could develop some photogrammetric images of this slab to assist. Lo and behold, a date and name appeared on the corner:
1600 IAMES HOLM
And what should faintly appear but the hilt and blade of a Claymore!
This slab is 1.84 m long, 0.80 m wide at the top and 0.55 m wide at the base. The Claymore runs most of the length of the slab, and there is an axe to its left. The hilt of the sword has not been accurately carved in line with the centre of the sword blade, being a little too far to the left.
The original names on this slab have been obliterated to be replaced with a more modern Urquhart inscription:
17 THOMAS 39 / URQUHART
The obliterated inscription includes:
…… / EUPHEMIA … / IN BELCHERRIE / 1603
Axe and Claymore; photo by Jim Mackay
The obliterated text lies between the red spots; photo by Jim Mackay
This slab is 1.90 m long and (surprisingly) rectangular, being 0.63 m wide at both top and base. A faint Claymore runs down the length of stone. It has downward pointing quillons, and perforated terminals to both quillons and hilt.
The faint Claymore can only be picked out on the wetted stone, at an angle; photo by Jim Mackay
The downward sloping quillons are difficult to pick out; photo by Jim Mackay
photo by Jim Mackay
The modern inscription is:
JOHN HOLM / MARGRAT / HOSAK / 1728 / JOHN:TOLM / ISBL MORRO
The original inscription around the perimeter was mostly unreadable, but much is now known due to the photogrammetry of Andy Hickie.
photogrammetric image by Andy Hickie
Running clockwise, starting on right side:
… … MAN DONALD H … K WHO DEPARTED YIS / LYFE … / …ALIE YE 10 DAY OF MARCH 1605
This slab was the subject of a mild discussion during the restoration works. Our excellent archaeologists were supervising the excavation by the volunteers of the new path close to the church, recording as we went. A corner of what was clearly an interesting stone appeared. A debate then ensued as to whether or not it was appropriate to expose the remainder of the stone. I’m afraid I was rather blunt in that if it wasn’t exposed then, it would soon be exposed after working hours! It turned out to be a beautiful Urquhart Claymore slab, of the latest date of those found at Kirkmichael.
A corner of the intriguing old stone projects into the route of the path; photo: Jim Mackay
The Claymore bears lobated pommels (i.e. quatrefoil terminals on the quillons, as per our leading photograph). It is the shortest of the Claymore swords seen so far, and the latest. I suspect the length was due to the flaw in the stone further down the stone into which the sword should have extended – the carver negotiated it with his border lines with some difficulty and simply avoided it with the sword by keeping it short.
HENRIE WRQWHART ⚬ IN bIRRKS ⚬ HES PREPARIT ⚬ THIS SEPWLTVR / FOR ⚬ HIM ⚬ SELF / & ANNAS ⚬ WRQWHART ⚬ & THAIR ⚬ POSTERITI ⚬ 1630 / 17 JOHN 39 / URQUHART / EUPHIEM / PATERSON / THOMA/S . URQUHART
photo: Andrew Dowsett
There were many Urquharts in Resolis in 1630. I presume Henry Urquhart’s wife’s maiden name was Urquhart too, so Henry Urquhart of Birks married Anna Urquhart. There is no guarantee that the John Urquhart from a century later (1739) was a descendant, but it is likely. I take it that John married Euphiem Paterson, and their son was Thomas Urquhart. The slab immediately to the north is also an Urquhart stone, with a curious “inkwell” feature.
This stone shows evidence of several later uses. The most recent inscription is probably:
AH IF / IH / 1758
It lies within a long line of Holm stones, so it can be safely assumed the most recent re-user was an Andrew or Alexander Holm. The original perimeter wording at the base seems to have been replaced with a crudely carved heart and letters:
RE FOR HIM
Since the last paragraph was written, we have gained experience of more Claymore stones and their different inscription styles, and they include in some cases this “crude” style of text and I now think it likely that the “crudely carved heart” and “RE FOR HIM” are actually the mid-section of an original “SEPVLTVRE FOR HIMSELF”. The wise are always learning!
The original inscription is worn away. This slab is trapped under the thick adjacent stone so inspection is very challenging. However, a faint Claymore can be seen – the blade and the hilt, including the pommel at the end, are just visible, and the terminals on the quillons can also be distinguished. Were we to free this slab from the memorial pressing down on it, we could probably recover more information from it.
The curious heart and cryptic letters at the base; photo by Jim Mackay
The perforated pommel of the hilt; photo by Jim Mackay
This stone was buried very deeply; we had to shift more than a foot of soil and turf on 20 June 2020, in our second post Coronavirus lockdown work party, to reach the slab. It lies underneath another slab for a good part of its length and is disintegrating badly over about half of its surface, with roots from the nearby yews infiltrating all the cracks in the slab. Why it should be disintegrating when it is so far below the effects of frost I do not know.
The disintegrating Claymore slab commemorating Donald Davidson, Miller in Kinbeachie; photo by Andrew Dowsett
It is a big slab, 1.98 m long, with a width at its top about 0.75 m dropping to about 0.72 m at its base. It is as usual about 0.15 m thick. The perimeter text starts at top right and we are lucky to have recovered as much as we have:
Right hand side: DONALD DAVIDSONE MILLER IN KINBE..CHIE
Base: stone disintegrated
Left hand side: most of it disintegrated and then: .. .. ..EIS IN YIS SEP..LTVRI
Top side: 7 FEBRUARII 1609
A later family has fitted in around the sword: IM MG / WM / CW
Part of the inscription; photo by Jim Mackay
And the date of 1609 squeezed in at the end of the perimeter inscription; photo by Jim Mackay
Only a few sections of the sword survive. On the right is a clear quillon with perforated terminal (five holes). Some of the hilt above this, and some of the sword blade, can be picked out
Part of handle, quillon with perforated terminal; photo by Jim Mackay
Part of the blade can be picked out further down the disintegrating slab; photo by Jim Mackay
This slab was exceptionally challenging to record as it nestles right in at the base of one of the two yew trees in the centre of the kirkyard. Those trees should never have been planted in this location – we think they went in about 1900 on either side of the Macphail headstone. The top corner of this slab cannot be read as the tree has grown over it. The Claymore is shorter and the perimeter inscription much more roughly inscribed than usual. The slab itself is 1.84 m in length. At first we were not even sure if it was a Claymore slab but then the blade emerged.
The slab photographed obliquely whilst wet, in daylight; photo: Andrew Dowsett
Night-time photography with a floodlight at different angles allowed us to pick out some roughly inscribed characters.
The slab photographed at night; photo: Jim Mackay
The inscriptions on these Claymore stones at Kirkmichael seem to use the phrase “for himself and his posterity” frequently. One bears the inscription “JHONE HOSOK IN KIRKMICHAEL HES PREPARID THIS SEPULTURE FOR HIMSELF & HIS POSTERITIE 19 APRILIS 1600 AND MARION PATIRSON HIS SPOUS” and another “HENRIE WRQWHART IN bIRRKS HES PREPARIT THIS SEPWLTVR / FOR HIM SELF / & ANNA WRQWHART & THAIR POSTERITI 1630”. And that phrase is about all that can be made out on this particular slab! The top line of the perimeter inscription is partially obscured by the yew, although I think that line could be read if access could be achieved. The right hand line seems too eroded for the first part and then it becomes clearer as it goes around the base and heads back up on the left hand side: “FOR HIMSELF AND HIS POSTERITIE”. The word before “FOR” definitely ends with “RE” and I think I can make out “SEPULTURE” but would not swear to it. The business section of course with “himself’s” name and the date of his demise is on the heavily eroded section, but if the stone could be accessed properly then with photogrammetric techniques perhaps the key information would become clear. There are later initials “WD / DB” and given there are several Barnet slabs in close proximity then I assume this slab was later adopted by the Barnet family.
A few letters can be made out on the top line; photo by Jim Mackay
The sword emerges more clearly; photo by Jim Mackay
As an aside, one of the photographs of this stone contains a startling example of pareidolia, or a face emerging from an artifact. My family also see a face here, so it is not just my perception!
photo by Jim Mackay
photo by Jim Mackay
This slab was the most diffult to record in Kirkmichael as it lay below another one. We think the one on top, itself a re-used slab from the 1700s, was pushed sideways out of the way to create space for a large Cameron tablestone. In fact, it was the restoration of this tablestone that triggered the investigation of this hidden slab, as we wished to complete any disturbance in the area before putting the tablestone back up (you can see the new foundation, the supports and the tablestone slab in the background of several of these action pictures). The line of stones within which the Claymore slab lies commemorate members of the Cameron alias Mackeddie family. In this part of the Black Isle, the two surnames were interchangeable, so when researching a family in the archives you have to look out for Cameron and Mckedie, Mackeddy, Mackiddie and all variants thereof.
turf is temporarily removed to a tarpaulin; photo by Davine Sutherland
a 49 lb punch is used with a plank to spread the weight whilst lifting the top slab just a little; photo by Davine Sutherland
supporting blocks slid in under the top slab; photo by Andrew Dowsett
wooden beams to spread the weight and give leverage are now inserted; photo by Andrew Dowsett
up comes the top slab; photo by Davine Sutherland
with the top slab upright, time to examine the lower slab; photo by Davine Sutherland
the whole slab, displaying multiple uses – and a Claymore! photo by Andrew Dowsett
double cartouche containing the initials of the first people to be commemorated on the slab – the hilt of the Claymore, with its downward pointing quillons, lies below; photo by Andrew Dowsett
I MK is likely to be John Mackeddie but H MF is more difficult to guess; the double cartouche is similar in design to another one in Kirkmichael bearing a date from the 1650s; photo by Andrew Dowsett
the hilt of the Claymore, and the later inscription dated 1760 – we believe these initials to be those of Thomas Mackeddie, tenant in Brae, and his spouse, Anne McRae; photo by Andrew Dowsett
a last look at the Claymore slab before it is covered over, probably not to be viewed again for a very long time; photo by Andrew Dowsett
layers of fine sand and soil are laid to protect the lower slab when the upper slab is lowered once more; photo by Davine Sutherland
and finally the turf is re-laid on the slab on top of a slab; photo by Andrew Dowsett
It would be remiss of me not to include the Claymore slab located in our complementary kirkyard of Cullicudden. This was in fact the very first Claymore Stone I knew about. It had been recorded by Ian Fisher of RCAHMS, under the prompting of local schoolteacher Mrs Penny Poole, who had been promoting the marvellous medieval stones in Cullicudden, several of which are now safely on display in the nave at Kirkmichael. Ian Fisher described the sword as having “inclined quillons and pierced quatrefoil terminals of true ‘claymore’.” The inscription is very crudely written:
This stone / pertins to / WILIAM MACCAE / 1605